background material phase one and two


Material used for the reports and published as part of the discussion process are set out below and can be downloaded.

Both reports also include a large number of references, most of which have been given web links. If you make use of this resource, please acknowledge this site and the transportclimate project, let us know, and we can build a further resource list of relevant projects.

Comments are still very welcome. Please email us at:

Previously published material, including some spreadsheets, are also listed. The versions of environmental duties and rates of progress first posted in December 2006 were updated in the light of comments received. Results from this have been widely circulated and presented to policymakers and the new first year charge confirmed in the most recent Pre Budget Report moves in the direction proposed by Phase 1. The idea that total emissions over a period of time are what matters for climate change was also reflected in the Climate Change Bill, which has now set legally binding limits in the form of five year "budgets". The first three have now been agreed by each Government Department including transport.

Early in 2010, the most recent climate change work by MTRU will be made available on the site, including heavy vehicle studies, transport appraisal and climate change, a commentary on the national transport emission targets and a selection of relevant current statistics.

For the time being, the original material is still available, as set out below.

Emerging issues: as at August 2008

Much of this material is incorporated in the final report

Land use planning: the key to transport demand
This paper reviews the threefold nature of transport demand - land use, transport availability and behavioural choice. Includes some NTS analysis of the changing nature of trip making and draft policy proposals for comment!
Click here

International shipping: plenty of scope for improvement
Large ships often use a less refined form of fossil fuel. This would make it easy to accept unrefined plant oils instead. Meanwhile the development of hi-tech versions of wind power and pentamarans offer real prospect of GHG reductions.

Click here
Aviation policy: oil price rise and cost benefit analysis
MTRU were commissioned by WWF UK to rework the original DfT cost benefit spreadsheets with new assumptions and consider how oil price rises, improved rail links and videoconferencing could reduce demand.
Click here

Aviation policy: charging
In the context of the Government's consultation on aviation charges, this discussion paper suggests a replacement for existing aviation tax. This is based on weight and distance, making it more closely related to emissions.

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UK Air travel
Cars, coaches and rail (in part) pay fuel duty, why don't flights between destinations in the UK? Reducing domestic travel would save modest amounts of CO2 but they are a major factor in the demand for new runways.
Click here

Road freight
It's a little known fact that HGVs are a major source of greenhouse gas from transport - see link to our charts.
They are also growing - by almost 30% since 1990. Car emissions, while the largest single source, have been stable.

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Improving Freight Efficiency
Allowing larger and heavier lorries may seem like a way improving efficiency. However, previous increases have not had any discernible impact - why is this?
The Freight on Rail Group sponsored this latest analysis of UK statistics.

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Archive: discussion notes: as at 21st April

Revised versions of this material (excluding spreadsheets) included in the Phase 1 Report

1 Targets for more efficient cars
Why is the current Government target not being met?
What needs to be done to put this right?
(includes copies of the spreadsheets used)

Click here

2 Environmental duties to encourage efficient car use
Here are some proposals (now partly reflected in current tax proposals) which follow the project's principles of being:
rational - transparent - avoidable

Click here
3 Targets, markets and rates of progress
Should transport should have to follow national targets? How does the rate of progress affect the size of target? What about offsetting and carbon markets?
Click here

4 What is the cost and what is the price of carbon?
How did Stern deal with valuing the future?
Why has this been subject to so much criticism?
Is there an alternative approach?

Click here